T E C H N I Q U E S

…I am  interested in many ways of printing and manipulating images, my practice incorporates etching, silkscreen and lithography, I also use collograph and print on various papers to create truly unique pieces.

 – VETA GORNER

Printmakers, print dealers, and print collectors use several terms that are necessary for the comprehension of prints:
Edition, Numbering, Artist’s Proofs.

 

Edition: The number of images printed from the plate, stone, block, or the like is called an edition. The body of the edition is numbered (for example, 1/100 through 100/100) directly on the print. Additional proofs, such as artist’s proofs, are also part of the edition.

Numbering: Numbering indicates the size of the edition and the number of each particular print. Therefore, 25/75 means that the print is the 25th impression from an edition of 75.

 

Artist’s Proofs: These impressions are in addition to the numbered edition and are so noted in pencil as artist proof or A/P. The legitimate number of artist’s proofs for a given edition is usually around 10% of the total.

An etching is created by covering a metal plate with an acid-resistant layer of wax called a ground and drawing a design through the ground using an etching needle. The plate is then dipped in acid, which bites into the exposed lines, thus etching the design into the plate. The plate is then inked and wiped carefully and thoroughly to take off all surplus color. Printing. The plate is positioned on the flat bed of the press and the damp paper is laid over the top. The felt blankets are spread over and the handle of the press is turned to run the bed between the rollers. Different ways of manipulating the mark-making process, the action and extent of corrosion, and the printing process give the artist an infinite range of creative opportunities.

Original lithographs are hand drawn by the artist on a specially prepared zinc plate. The process depends on a simple chemical principle – the mutual antipathy of grease and water. The image is drawn with greasy materials on a grease-sensitive surface, with the non-printing areas treated with water based materials to keep them clean. When printing ink is rolled on, it adheres only to the sensitized greasy marks. The inked image is then printed using an offset process. With an offset press, the ink from the plate is transferred to a rubber blanket, and from that blanket onto paper.

Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink onto receiving material by sharp edged tool (squeegee). A squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. Silkscreen method produces sharp clean images and great for layering the colours and images.

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